Daft (83) states that organizational dimensions falls into two types: structure and context. Technology as contextual dimensions is important because it describes the organizational setting and influences the structural dimensions. Robbins (89) explains that studies assessing the relationship between technology and structure looked at only manufacturing organizations supported relationship in the work unit level or at the operating core.
Robbins (89), Daft (83) and Hall (83) mention that structural dimension pertain to internal characteristics of organization. From the 18 propositions developed, 15 propositions indicate that the technology dimension may influence the structural dimensions.
The more uncertain (Thompson (67)), nonroutine (Perrow (67)), innovative (Robbins (89)), fast the rates of change of product or market (Cooper (86), Miles & Snow), and high level of technology (Slevin, Covin (87), Keen (81)) are, the lower complexity (Robbins (89), Daft (83)), formalization (Robbins (89), Daft (83)) and centralization (Robbins (89), Daft (83) and Hall (83)) the structural dimension of the organization will be.
The less uncertain, nonroutine, innovative, slow the rates of change of product or market, low level of technology are, the higher complexity, formalization and centralization the structural dimension of the organization will be. The only three propositions, these are the levels of the technology complexity (Woodward (65)) may not correlate linearly with the structural dimension of the organization.
The undergraduate student in PPM Management and Business School has to implement the business idea in the incubators in the entrepreneurship class. The students are divided into three groups related to the 3 PPM incubators in its campus.
This study is limited in the business plan in running the incubators for three groups, because the incubators are just running in the first week. The business plan of the incubators has been presented in the front of 3 faculties as reviewers.
Using qualitative research, it can be explored that the first, major of the students do not correlate to the good business plan. The group that does not have the marketing major members can make the excellent marketing plan in incubator business plan.
Pengusaha kecil dalam menjalankan operasinya banyak menghadapi permasalahan berupa penyakit yang menyerang. Penyakit ini kadang sepele, tetapi banyak yang mematikan usaha. Memang ada juga pengusaha kecil yang menderita penyakit ini tetapi dapat besar dan sukses, tetapi umumnya mengalami banyak permasalahan.
Factors contributing successful manager have been identified from; achievement motive from McClelland (1961). management skill from Katz (1974), in search of excellence from Peter and Waterman (1982), ten management roles from Mintzberg (1990), and management process from Robbins (1991), Stoner and Freeman (1989).
This qualitative research uses grounded research from Glaser and Straus (1967) and Strauss and Corbin (1998) with three steps; open coding, selected coding and theoretical coding in order to develop theoretical framework for factors contributing the successful managers.
Content analysis is used for transcript of the interviews that are recorded and written. Site Content Analyzer Software was used, to process the all transcript from the respondents. In applying grounded theory, 10 alumni of graduate student of the PPM Management and Business School who are the winner of the Kadarman Award were interviewed by the graduate student of the PPM Management and Business School (Batch WM 58) after receiving the grounded theory in the intrapreneurship class.
From the 6 propositions developed, one proposition indicates that the structural dimension for formalization and complexity correlates with size as contextual organization, but the centralization in large organization can be low or high.
The correlation between sizes as contextual dimension of organization with structural dimension is not so significant. Whereas, 5 other propositions indicate that the structural dimensions of the organization including complexity, formalization, and centralization as dependent variable correlates significantly with contextual dimensions of the organization including environments and strategy as independent variables.
The more mechanistic the contextual dimensions of organization is, the more mechanistic the structural dimension of the organization will be; and the more organics the contextual dimension of organization is, the more organics the structural dimension of the organization will be.
Reviewing from the literature, the entrepreneurship theory can be clustered into three theories: Economy (macro), Sociology (group) and Psychology (individual). The economists are such as: Cantillon (1730). Jean-Baptiste Say (1800), Schumpeter (1911), Marshall (1994) Libenstein (1995) Gillis (1996), Jones (1995) etc state the conducive economy climate can encourage the entrepreneurship development by giving the first, economic opportunities; second, business information availability and third, transferring the technology.
The sociologist such as Weber (1904) argues that fourth, religions and ethnics groups have important role in the development of entrepreneurship. On the other side psychologists and other characteristics approach are such as: McClelland (1961), Palmer (1970). Kilby (1971), Sexton and Boulmer (1996), Druckers (1985), Ratter and etc mention that psychological aspect such fifth, achievement motive, risk taking, goal setting; sixth, locus of control; seventh, innovations, are very important in developing entrepreneurship.
From the 7 hypothesis developed from the literature review, the only two hypotheses accepted/supported from the 55 samples of the entrepreneurs. The accepted hypotheses for the successful entrepreneur are that first, business information availability is very importance for the entrepreneurs.
The role for the interventionists in giving the information is needed to develop the entrepreneurs. Program such training; mentoring and coaching will be very useful in this entrepreneurship program. Secondly, the high locus of control may be very important to take action to be entrepreneur. Interventionists can play the bigger role to encourage and strengthening the internal locus of control of the entrepreneurs.
The author identifies six variables describing entrepreneurship in high technology content. Among ten propositions developed using these six variables, these propositions involve only two variables that seems significantly differ between the high and low technology entrepreneurship.
First, in term of education, the new high technology venture initiation has higher level of education comparing to the low technology entrepreneur, and moreover the high technology entrepreneur has engineering education background comparing to the nonengineering background in low technological entrepreneur.
Second, there is indication that inventors are likely to works individually, whereas entrepreneurs are more likely to work in teams. Further more, founders of the high technology ventures tend have more partner as compared to founders of the low technology ventures. Intensification of master and PhD program in may accelerate the high technology entrepreneurship.