Structural Dimension of The Technology in Manufacturing Organization: An Exploratory Study

Daft (83) states that organizational dimensions falls into two types: structure and context. Technology as contextual dimensions is important because it describes the organizational setting and influences the structural dimensions. Robbins (89) explains that studies assessing the relationship between technology and structure looked at only manufacturing organizations supported relationship in the work unit level or at the operating core.

Robbins (89), Daft (83) and Hall (83) mention that structural dimension pertain to internal characteristics of organization. From the 18 propositions developed, 15 propositions indicate that the technology dimension may influence the structural dimensions.

The more uncertain (Thompson (67)), nonroutine (Perrow (67)), innovative (Robbins (89)), fast the rates of change of product or market (Cooper (86), Miles & Snow), and high level of technology (Slevin, Covin (87), Keen (81)) are, the lower complexity (Robbins (89), Daft (83)), formalization (Robbins (89), Daft (83)) and centralization (Robbins (89), Daft (83) and Hall (83)) the structural dimension of the organization will be.

The less uncertain, nonroutine, innovative, slow the rates of change of product or market, low level of technology are, the higher complexity, formalization and centralization the structural dimension of the organization will be. The only three propositions, these are the levels of the technology complexity (Woodward (65)) may not correlate linearly with the structural dimension of the organization.
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Factors Affecting The Students Business Plan and Implementation in The PPM Incubators

cafe incubator ppm manajemenThe undergraduate student in PPM Management and Business School has to implement the business idea in the incubators in the entrepreneurship class. The students are divided into three groups related to the 3 PPM incubators in its campus.

This study is limited in the business plan in running the incubators for three groups, because the incubators are just running in the first week. The business plan of the incubators has been presented in the front of 3 faculties as reviewers.

Using qualitative research, it can be explored that the first, major of the students do not correlate to the good business plan. The group that does not have the marketing major members can make the excellent marketing plan in incubator business plan.
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Success Factors of Managers of The Kadarman Award Receivers: A Grounded Theory Approach

penerima kadarman 2006 ppmABSTRACT
Factors contributing successful manager have been identified from; achievement motive from McClelland (1961). management skill from Katz (1974), in search of excellence from Peter and Waterman (1982), ten management roles from Mintzberg (1990), and management process from Robbins (1991), Stoner and Freeman (1989).

This qualitative research uses grounded research from Glaser and Straus (1967) and Strauss and Corbin (1998) with three steps; open coding, selected coding and theoretical coding in order to develop theoretical framework for factors contributing the successful managers.

Content analysis is used for transcript of the interviews that are recorded and written. Site Content Analyzer Software was used, to process the all transcript from the respondents. In applying grounded theory, 10 alumni of graduate student of the PPM Management and Business School who are the winner of the Kadarman Award were interviewed by the graduate student of the PPM Management and Business School (Batch WM 58) after receiving the grounded theory in the intrapreneurship class.
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Structural Dimension of The Contextual Organization: An Exploratory Study

From the 6 propositions developed, one proposition indicates that the structural dimension for formalization and complexity correlates with size as contextual organization, but the centralization in large organization can be low or high.

The correlation between sizes as contextual dimension of organization with structural dimension is not so significant. Whereas, 5 other propositions indicate that the structural dimensions of the organization including complexity, formalization, and centralization as dependent variable correlates significantly with contextual dimensions of the organization including environments and strategy as independent variables.

The more mechanistic the contextual dimensions of organization is, the more mechanistic the structural dimension of the organization will be; and the more organics the contextual dimension of organization is, the more organics the structural dimension of the organization will be.
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The Entrepreneurship Theory: An Overview

Reviewing from the literature, the entrepreneurship theory can be clustered into three theories: Economy (macro), Sociology (group) and Psychology (individual). The economists are such as: Cantillon (1730). Jean-Baptiste Say (1800), Schumpeter (1911), Marshall (1994) Libenstein (1995) Gillis (1996), Jones (1995) etc state the conducive economy climate can encourage the entrepreneurship development by giving the first, economic opportunities; second, business information availability and third, transferring the technology.

The sociologist such as Weber (1904) argues that fourth, religions and ethnics groups have important role in the development of entrepreneurship. On the other side psychologists and other characteristics approach are such as: McClelland (1961), Palmer (1970). Kilby (1971), Sexton and Boulmer (1996), Druckers (1985), Ratter and etc mention that psychological aspect such fifth, achievement motive, risk taking, goal setting; sixth, locus of control; seventh, innovations, are very important in developing entrepreneurship.

From the 7 hypothesis developed from the literature review, the only two hypotheses accepted/supported from the 55 samples of the entrepreneurs. The accepted hypotheses for the successful entrepreneur are that first, business information availability is very importance for the entrepreneurs.

The role for the interventionists in giving the information is needed to develop the entrepreneurs. Program such training; mentoring and coaching will be very useful in this entrepreneurship program. Secondly, the high locus of control may be very important to take action to be entrepreneur. Interventionists can play the bigger role to encourage and strengthening the internal locus of control of the entrepreneurs.
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High Technology Entrepreneurship: An Exploratory Study

The author identifies six variables describing entrepreneurship in high technology content. Among ten propositions developed using these six variables, these propositions involve only two variables that seems significantly differ between the high and low technology entrepreneurship.

First, in term of education, the new high technology venture initiation has higher level of education comparing to the low technology entrepreneur, and moreover the high technology entrepreneur has engineering education background comparing to the nonengineering background in low technological entrepreneur.

Second, there is indication that inventors are likely to works individually, whereas entrepreneurs are more likely to work in teams. Further more, founders of the high technology ventures tend have more partner as compared to founders of the low technology ventures. Intensification of master and PhD program in may accelerate the high technology entrepreneurship.
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Influence of Gender, Age, Type of Business and Originating Country of Quality Control Circle on Tools, Processes and Measurements by Using Content Analysis

This research tries to identify correlation among four independent variables of the QCC (Quality Control Circle); genders of the QCC participants, seniority of the members, type of business and country of origin of QCC with dependent variables: tools used to solve the problems in QCC, process or steps used, and measurement of the result applied by QCC.

The only the country of origin as independent variable likely correlates with the tools used and process applied in QCC. The abroad (outside Indonesia) QCC tends to be more unstructured. On the other side, QCC Indonesia is likely more structure in using tools and keeps 8 steps of problem solving perfectly in QCC.

This may implies that QCC Indonesia is rigid in follow the QCC rule that may causes less creativity, high reluctance to change for QCC improvement and more concern to the criteria competition rather than the quality improvement it self. Both cluster, QCC Indonesia and QCC abroad agree that measurement of the QCC result tends to be more quantitative, especially financial measurement.
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Entrepreneurship Canvas Ontology

Timmers (1998), Weill and Vitale (2001) define a business model as a description of the roles and relationships among a firm’s consumers, customers, allies and suppliers and it identifies the major flows of product, information, and money, as well as the major benefits to participants.

The term ontology has its origin in philosophy and denotes the philosophical discipline that deals with the nature and the organization of reality (Guarino and Giaretta 1995). Gruber’s (1993) define ontology as an explicit specification of a conceptualization.

To create an understanding of entrepreneur and the ways the entrepreneur starting the business or developing business for the existing entrepreneur, Rainer Kolshorn and Jim Tomecko(1998) from GTZ (Deutsche Geeseschaft fuer Technische Zusamenarbeit) Germany develop the model called by Competency based Economies through Formation of Entrepreneur (CEFE).
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Code of Conduct for SME in Bali and Makasar Indonesia: An Experimental Research

Code of conduct (COC) for SME, before getting big, is very importance to Good Corporate and doing clean business in the global environment. It finds that entrepreneurs are not guided by any specific code of conduct, and must decide for themselves what is right (Robinson and Mescht).

Indonesia Business Link (IBL) developed and guided of COC complies with the International Rule and generally accepted such SA 8000. 1. The objectives of the researches are to measure the effectiveness the socialization of COC done in the class. 2. Samples that be used are in Bali (24 respondents) and Makasar (33 respondents) for export oriented SME. 3. This researches are conducted in 31 Maret 2011 in Bali and 28 April 2011 in Makasar. 4. The finding is that code of conduct can be socialized.

By experimental research (Campbell and Stanley) can be seen that pre and post test conducted during socialization increase significantly the understanding of the Code of Conduct. After understanding of COC, it is hoped that cleaner and more proper business will be conducted by SME. The activities also will be replicated to the other city of Indonesia.
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